Discussion on the construction of digital mines

I. Introduction

The 21st century is a century dominated by information, and "digitalization" has become a symbol of the knowledge economy. The rapid development of computers, information, positioning, communication and automation technologies has profoundly affected and changed the traditional mining industry. Developed countries have used digital information technology to transform the mining industry. Remote-controlled mining, unmanned work surfaces and even unmanned mines have become a reality in mining developed countries such as Canada, the United States, and Australia. Digital information technology not only changes the production technology and organization management mode of traditional mining, but also greatly improves the production efficiency and safety level of mining enterprises. In recent years, with the development of social economy and the implementation of national macro-control, the economic form and operation status of China's mining enterprises are undergoing significant changes, and the construction of information technology is gradually improving. Mining machinery and equipment, automatic monitoring equipment, communication equipment and various professions The application of the industry software has also been greatly developed, which provides the basic conditions for the digitalization of the mine. However, the overall informationization level of China's mining industry is not high enough. At present, the degree of digitalization of mines in China is still very low, and the digital construction of mines is in the stage of experiment and exploration.

Lilou iron ore scale of construction, mining capacity of 5.3 million t, by the end of 2006 to start construction, planned by the end of 2010 with trial production conditions, by the end of 2011 the mine infrastructure task is completed, with production conditions. Company to build a new mine thought patterns, high standards and sustainable development, according to advanced international and domestic first-class modern mine level, plans to build the nation's largest underground black metal mine in 2012. In order to achieve this ambitious strategic goal, it is necessary to implement information-based efficient production and management, and digitalization is the basis for realizing enterprise informationization, and is a concrete manifestation of informationization. Only through digital technology can visualization, intelligence and networking be realized. And integration, ultimately achieving the mine's comprehensive information management and safety, efficiency, green and sustainable development.

Second, the construction content of digital mines

The digital mine is based on the mining system, with geographic coordinates as the reference system, based on the theory of mine science and technology, information science, artificial intelligence and computational science, supported by high-tech mine observation and network technology, and three-dimensional production activities in mining enterprises. Within the scope of scale, network, digitization, modeling, visualization, integration and scientific management of all aspects and production factors of mine production, operation and management will enable mine production to present a safe, efficient and low-cost situation.

Digital mines should include three aspects: 1 geological modeling technology and digitization of mining technology, such as the occurrence of ore body, roadway engineering, pioneering design, mining design and other information digitization, that is, the information and its three-dimensional coordinates Corresponding, and establish various three-dimensional models to display the ore body and layout engineering situation more intuitively; 2 digitization of various production operation systems of mines, such as ground pressure monitoring system, ventilation system monitoring, vehicle dispatching system, personnel positioning, etc. , automation, intelligent management; 3 information management of various functional departments, such as mechanical and electrical equipment management, labor management, production management and decision support systems, digital implementation and intelligent management. Through these three aspects of informationization, automation, and digitization, the mine will be built into a multi-dimensional integrated information system that is digital in information, intelligent in management, automated in equipment, and covering time and space, achieving scientific and safe production, efficient, and economical production. Promote the sustainable development of mining enterprises.

Third, the implementation of key technologies in digital mines

The key technology of digital mines must be centered around the central issue of mining, and the visualization and digitization of the mining environment and mining process should be studied.

(1) Visualization technology of mine geology and deposit modeling

The digitization and visualization of mining objects is a relatively accurate description of the shape of the deposit. Based on geological and measurement expertise, geological modeling visualization technology obtains data describing the quantity, quality and occurrence of ore bodies through geological exploration methods such as drilling, trenching, sampling, etc., using three-dimensional geoscience modeling technology and advanced computer. The graphic processing technology establishes a three-dimensional deposit model to realize the visualization of the ore body, and provides a modern scientific and technological means for technical and economic analysis, optimization of mining design schemes and rational organization of production.

The geological formation of the ore body is complex and variable, and it is difficult to describe it with regular geometry. It requires a flexible, simple and fast method to establish an irregular geometric model of the ore body. The DIMINE software creates a solid model through feature lines (points) to describe objects in a three-dimensional space. Building a solid model involves connecting wireframes, validation, calculations, etc., to prepare for block models and mining designs.

(II) Visualization technology of deposit mining

Based on the geological and deposit model, combined with the actual production situation, complete the standard section design, support design, development design, mining design, blasting mining design, mining plan preparation, ventilation network design, disaster response plan and other work.

(III) Production scheduling and process control technology

Production scheduling and process control are built on the integrated communication system platform to achieve tracking and positioning of personnel equipment, equipment operation status control, and video surveillance systems and virtual reality systems. This is an advanced stage of digital mine construction. Only by establishing a fully functional production scheduling and process control system can remote mining and unmanned mining of hazardous workplaces be realized.

Various data are collected by different types of sensors, using industrial Ethernet, PLC intelligent control and video surveillance system to achieve intelligent centralized monitoring of mine lifting, transportation, ventilation, drainage, mineral processing and other equipment.

(4) Mine safety monitoring and early warning system

In the underground production process of mines, the main hazards include collapse of surrounding rocks, roof collapse, sheet gangs, rock bursts, water inrush, fires, and collapse of large-scale goafs. Therefore, an effective safety monitoring and early warning system must be established.

With the continuous advancement of science and technology, the prediction of accident signs began to gradually change from experience method to scientific prediction method, such as ground penetrating radar, stress monitor, fire warning system, radio frequency transmission tracking system, 3D dynamic space laser monitoring system, microseismic monitoring system. GIS systems have been well applied in mine warning and forecasting.

(5) Integrated communication technology

Comprehensive communication technology is used to collect and transmit all kinds of environmental indicators, equipment working conditions, personnel information, operating parameters and dispatching instructions of underground mines in a comprehensive, fast, accurate and real-time manner, and carry out ground-downhole two-way wireless transmission in the form of multimedia. To achieve underground personnel scheduling, production and safety management.

4. Difficulties and countermeasures in the construction of digital mines

Because the deposit is buried underground, its occurrence and occurrence conditions are complex, the existing exploration technology is difficult to accurately determine its occurrence and complex internal composition, and the exploration method costs are high, so that the acquisition of mine data becomes a digital mine. bottleneck.

In addition, mining is a complex, variable, information-constrained, unpredictable system, and the geological data of the deposit has been in dynamic changes. As the mining progresses, on the one hand, the information of the basic geological data changes, such as the change of geometric shape and the change of the stress state. At the same time, the mining process is also a process of data acquisition. As the mining progresses, it is necessary to update the shape and quantity of the ore body in time. , geological data describing the quality. In view of the fact that the current technical level cannot meet the requirements of digital mines for collecting, updating, transmitting, processing and utilizing data, it is difficult to accurately describe the geological body during the dynamic change of mining.

The digital construction of mines is a complicated, systematic and arduous task. Due to technical conditions, personnel quality, funds and other factors, the following countermeasures are proposed.

(1) Organizing personnel training and strengthening theoretical study. We should increase publicity, update concepts as soon as possible, organize various types of personnel training, strengthen the training of digital theory and practical ability, and train a group of innovative high-tech professional and technical personnel so that they can actively participate in or cooperate with digital mines. Construction.

(2) Increase investment in research funding and strengthen scientific and technological innovation. Governments and enterprises should attach great importance to the digital construction of mines, designate specialized personnel to carry out digital construction of mines, increase investment in research funds, and encourage more people to participate in digital mine innovation research by setting up special innovation funds.

(3) Strengthening technical cooperation and exchanges. Relevant universities, institutes and mining enterprises, between different universities and disciplines, should strengthen the technical exchanges between multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary fields involved in the construction of digital mines, and jointly study and discuss the key points and difficulties in the construction of digital mines. problem.

(4) Develop various application software suitable for mines. For different applications and mine engineering needs, research institutes and research institutes should research and develop mine application software suitable for different users and different functions. For the existing mining software, it is necessary to continuously upgrade, improve its functions, try to meet customer needs, and make it more easy to understand and easy to operate.

V. Conclusion

(1) Explain the basic content of digital mine construction from the aspects of deposit and mining environment, production operation system and digital management. Through mine construction of information digitization, intelligent management and equipment automation, mine safety, efficient production management and sustainable development are realized. development of.

(2) Focusing on the mining of mineral deposits, the key technologies of digital mine implementation are discussed from five aspects: geological modeling visualization technology, mineral deposit visualization technology, production scheduling and process control technology, integrated communication technology and safety monitoring and early warning technology. The three-dimensional visualization study of geological modeling, pioneering engineering and mining engineering, which was initially realized in Lilou Iron Mine, laid a solid foundation for the subsequent high-level digital construction.

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